The possibilities of social mobility are mainly determined by the family in which a child is born. Today, the gaps between access to education and academic success (higher education degree) are even greater. Whereas today, students from all socio-economic backgrounds are qualified in the same way, 75% of high-level students in American institutions are in the highest socio-economic quartile. A family class determines the investment and participation of parents in their children`s teaching skills and success from an early age, so that low-income students are less likely to succeed academically and socially because of the impact that the (common) style of education of the lower and working classes has on their prospects and success in education.  In the face of inequality, market-based theories say that if left to the free market, all products and services will produce a balance and price stability will reduce inequality. In countries where agricultural labour is not skilled but agricultural land is limited, for example, agricultural land is paid very little. According to market theories, low wages, which are earned by agricultural workers, will push more people over time to learn other skills, thereby reducing the supply of agricultural labour. With less supply and stable demand, agricultural labour wages will rise to a sustainable level. As a result, the status of agricultural workers will increase and inequalities will be reduced. In general, market-based theories indicate that if the supply of labour and goods meets demand, the economic order will reach equilibrium and inequalities will be either non-existent or stable. Why is Africa in such a difficult situation? Much of the continent`s poverty can be attributed to the availability of land, especially arable land (land that can be cultivated). Centuries of struggle for land ownership have led to the ruin or non-exploitation of many agricultural lands, while many countries with insufficient rainfall have never put in place irrigation infrastructure. Many of Africa`s natural resources were absorbed by colonial forces long ago, leaving little agricultural and mineral wealth on the continent.
The models of mobility in education that exist between urban and suburban schools are transparent. Graduation rates provide a rich context for these patterns. During the 2013/2014 school year, Detroit public schools had a graduation rate of 71%, while Grand Pointe High School (a suburb of Detroit) had an average graduation rate of 94%. A similar phenomenon has been observed in Los Angeles, California and New York. The Los Angeles High School (downtown) recorded a graduation rate of 58% and the high school of San Marino (suburb) a graduation rate of 96%.  The New York City Geographic District Number Two (downtown) recorded a graduation rate of 69% and the District of Westchester School (suburb) an 85% rate.  These patterns were observed across the country when differences in graduation rates in downtown areas and graduation rates in the suburbs were assessed.